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语言学重点1-10

Chapter one Introduction

一、定义

1.语言学Linguistics

Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language.

2.普通语言学General Linguistics

The study of language as a whole is often called General linguistics.

3.语言language

Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.

语言是人类用来交际的任意性的有声符号体系。

4.识别特征Design Features

It refers to the defining poperties of human language that distinguish it from any animal system of communication.

语言识别特征是指人类语言区别与其他任何动物的交际体系的限定性特征。

Arbitrariness任意性

Productivity多产性

Duality双重性

Displacement移位性

Cultural transmission文化传递

⑴arbitrariness

There is no logical connection between meanings and sounds.

P.S the arbitrary nature of language is a sign of sophistication and it makes it possible for language to have an unlimited source of expressions

⑵Productivity

Animals are quite limited in the messages they are able to send.

⑶Duality

Language is a system, which consists of two sets of structures ,or two levels.

⑷Displacement

Language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situations of the speaker. ⑸Cultural transmission

Human capacity for language has a genetic basis, but we have to be taught and learned the details of any language system. this showed that language is culturally transmitted. not by instinct. animals are born with the capacity to produce the set of calls peculiar to their species.

5.语言能力Competence

Competence is the ideal user‘s knowledge of the rules of his language.

6.语言运用performance

Performance is the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communication.

语言运用是所掌握的规则在语言交际中的体现。

7.历时语言学Diachronic linguistics

The study of language change through time. a diachronic study of language is a historical study, which studies the historical development of language over a period of time.

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